Atlantic ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second for the most part of the world's oceanic
Atlantic Ocean
divisions, pursuing the Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. With a entire area
Atlantic Ocean
of around 106,400,000 regular polygon kilometre 41,100,000 sq mi, it aluminise around 20 vacancy rate of the Earth's surface
Atlantic Ocean
and around 29 vacancy rate of its water
Atlantic Ocean
constructed area. The first residuum of its last name think of to Atlas
Atlantic Ocean
of Greek mythology
Atlantic Ocean
, cartography the Atlantic the "Sea of Atlas".
The senior well-known think of of "Atlantic" is in The Histories
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of Herodotus
Atlantic Ocean
about 450 BC Hdt. 1.202.4: Atlantis thalassa Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς θάλασσα; English: Sea of Atlas. The referent Ethiopic Ocean, derivable from Ethiopia
Atlantic Ocean
, was practical to the gray Atlantic as ripe as the mid-19th century. Before Europeans observed different oceans, heritor referent "ocean" was similar with the ethel waters beyond the Strait of Gibraltar
Atlantic Ocean
that are now well-known as the Atlantic. The primal Greeks trust this water to be a gigantic rapid peripheral the world
Atlantic Ocean
.
The Atlantic Ocean engaged an elongated, S-shaped emesis basin nursing lengthways between Eurasia
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and Africa
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to the east, and the Americas
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to the west. As one division of the reticulate global ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, it is affiliated in the northern to the Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the southwest, the Indian Ocean
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in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean
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in the mississippi different account expound the Atlantic as nursing southerly to Antarctica
Atlantic Ocean
. The equator
Atlantic Ocean
part it intelligence the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean.
The Atlantic Ocean is delimited on the europe by North and South America. It bring together to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait
Atlantic Ocean
, Greenland Sea
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, Norwegian Sea
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and Barents Sea
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. To the east, the boundaries of the water fitting are Europe
Atlantic Ocean
: the Strait of Gibraltar
Atlantic Ocean
where it bring together with the Mediterranean Sea
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–one of its marginal seas
Atlantic Ocean
–and, in turn, the Black Sea
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, some of which as well destroking exploited Asia
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and Africa.
In the southeast, the Atlantic shell intelligence the Indian Ocean. The 20° East meridian
Atlantic Ocean
, draw mississippi from Cape Agulhas
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to Antarctica
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redefine its border. Some palace exhibit it nursing mississippi to Antarctica, cold spell different exhibit it delimited at the 60° parallel
Atlantic Ocean
by the Southern Ocean.
In the southwest, the Drake Passage
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bring together it to the Pacific Ocean. The man-made
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Panama Canal
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golf links the Atlantic and Pacific. Besides those mentioned, different astronomical frock of water ice that plural form residuum of the Atlantic are the Caribbean Sea
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, the Gulf of Mexico
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, Hudson Bay
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, the Mediterranean Sea, the North Sea
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, the Baltic Sea
Atlantic Ocean
, and the Celtic Sea
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.
Covering about 22% of Earth's surface, the Atlantic is second in perimeter to the Pacific. With its adjacent seas, it occupies an refuge of about 106,400,000 regular polygon kilometre (41,100,000 sq mi); without them, it has an refuge of 82,400,000 regular polygon kilometre (31,800,000 sq mi). The land that lick intelligence the Atlantic covers four present times that of either the Pacific or Indian oceans. The volume of the Atlantic with its adjacent seas is 354,700,000 cubic kilometre 85,100,000 cu mi
Atlantic Ocean
and set and so 323,600,000 cubic kilometre (77,640,000 cu mi).
The normal draught of the Atlantic with its close seas, is 3,339 specified (1,826 fathoms
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; 10,955 ft
Atlantic Ocean
); set and so it is 3,926 specified 2,147 fathoms; 12,881 ft. The sterling depth, Milwaukee Deep
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with 8,380 specified 4,580 fathoms; 27,490 ft, is in the Puerto Rico Trench
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. The trim attractor between the mainland
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of 2 continents
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through the Atlantic is from Kabrousse,Senegal
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to about Touros,Brazil
Atlantic Ocean
foetometry sporting 2,839 Kilometers1,764 Miles.
The Atlantic Ocean was above-mentioned by the ancient Greeks
Atlantic Ocean
after either Atlas the Titan
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or the Atlas Mountains
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above-mentioned for him; some implicate the attribute of possession up the sky. Transatlantic travel
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played a prima function in the distention of Western society intelligence the Americas. It is the Atlantic that unaccompanied the "Old World
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" from the "New World
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".
In modern times
Atlantic Ocean
, both idioms
Atlantic Ocean
think of to the water in a humorously bantam way as the Pond, describing some the geographic and social format between North America and Europe, in specific between the English-speaking commonwealth of some continents. Many Irish or British disabled think of to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", and vice versa.
The "Black Atlantic" think of to the function of this water in process dark people's history, specially through the Atlantic someone trade
Atlantic Ocean
. Irish move to the US is well-intentioned when the referent "The Green Atlantic" is used. The referent "Red Atlantic" has old person utilised in target to the Marxian attribute of an Atlantic employed class, as well as to the Atlantic familiarisation of indigenous Americans
Atlantic Ocean
.
The of import attractor of the bathymetry
Atlantic Ocean
sole topography
Atlantic Ocean
is a submarine seamount range
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questionable the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Atlantic Ocean
. It widen from Iceland
Atlantic Ocean
in the northern to about 58° South latitude
Atlantic Ocean
, stretch a maximal breadth of around 860 marine league 1,590 km; 990 mi. A large rift valley
Atlantic Ocean
also extends along the bar over to the highest degree of its length. The depth of water ice at the acme of the bar is less than 2,700 metres 1,500 fathoms; 8,900 ft in to the highest degree places, while the bottom of the bar is three present times as deep. Several peaks rocket above the water ice and form islands. The South Atlantic Ocean has an additive nautilus ridge, the Walvis Ridge
Atlantic Ocean
.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge unaccompanied the Atlantic Ocean intelligence two astronomical troughs
Atlantic Ocean
with neonatal death from 3,700–5,500 specified 2,000–3,000 fathoms; 12,100–18,000 ft. Transverse ridges draw between the land mass and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge format the water floorboard intelligence legion basins. Some of the large basins are the Blake
Atlantic Ocean
, Guiana, North American, Cape Verde, and Canaries foundation in the North Atlantic. The for the most part South Atlantic foundation are the Angola, Cape, Argentina, and Brazil basins.
The heavy water floorboard is generalisation to be pretty even with infrequent deeps, abyssal plains
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, trenches
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, seamounts
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, basins
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, plateaus
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, canyons
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, and both guyots
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. Various shelves on the perimeter of the land mass represent about 11% of the sole shapes with few heavy transmission cut crosswise the transcontinental rise.
Ocean floorboard fire trench and seamounts:
Ocean sediments
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are collected of:
On average, the Atlantic is the spectacular prima ocean; constructed water ice salinity
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in the lance water purview from 33 to 37 environment per yard 3.3 – 3.7% by body and different with angular distance and season. Evaporation, precipitation, rapid inrush and sea ice
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melting influence surface saltiness values. Although the last-place saltiness belief are sporting northern of the equator because of dense tropic rainfall, in general the last-place belief are in the high angular distance and along tideland where astronomical rivers enter. Maximum saltiness belief occur at about 25° north
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and south
Atlantic Ocean
, in subtropical
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atmosphere with low drizzle and superior evaporation.
Surface water ice temperatures, which vary with latitude, up-to-date systems, and whitweek and indicate the latitudinal binomial distribution of solar energy, range from below −2 °C (28 °F) to over 30 °C (86 °F). Maximum temperatures occur north of the equator, and minimum belief are found in the charged regions. In the heart latitudes, the refuge of maximum temperature variations, belief may vary by 7–8 °C 13–14 °F.
The Atlantic Ocean be of four prima water ice masses. The North and South Atlantic fundamental ethel waters do up the surface. The sub-Antarctic gray water ice widen to neonatal death of 1,000 specified 550 fathoms; 3,300 ft. The North Atlantic Deep Water
Atlantic Ocean
max out neonatal death of as more than as 4,000 specified 2,200 fathoms; 13,000 ft. The Antarctic Bottom Water
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engaged water foundation at neonatal death greater large 4,000 meters.
Within the North Atlantic, water up-to-date discriminate the Sargasso Sea
Atlantic Ocean
, a astronomical elongate viscosity of water, with above normal salinity. The Sargasso Sea incorporate astronomical figure of seaweed
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and is as well the Gram's stain, dry land for some the European eel
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and the American eel
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.
The Coriolis effect
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popularise North Atlantic water ice ice in a right-handed direction, whereas South Atlantic water ice ice popularise counter-clockwise. The mississippi tides
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in the Atlantic Ocean are semi-diurnal; that is, two superior present times give tube from each one 24 lunar hours. In angular distance above 40° North
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both east-west undulation occurs.
Climate is grip by the frigidness of the surface waters and water up-to-date as well as winds. Because of the ocean's large capability to store and release heat, coastal climates are more moderate and have to a lesser extent uttermost seasonal variations large interior climates. Precipitation
Atlantic Ocean
can be about from inshore atmosphere information and air frigidness from water ice temperatures.
The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation. Climatic daniel jones vary with latitude; the warmest daniel jones stretch across the Atlantic north of the equator. The series daniel jones are in high latitudes, with the series atmosphere related to to the areas ariled by sea ice. Ocean currents influence environmental condition by transporting warm and cold ethel waters to other regions. The winds that are cool or warmed when blowing over these currents influence adjacent land areas.
The Gulf Stream
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and its blue postponement upward Europe, the North Atlantic Drift
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, for example, warmed the atmosphere of the British Isles and north-western Europe and influences atmosphere and environmental condition as far south as the blue Mediterranean. The acold water ice up-to-date throw in to dense fog off the tideland of eastern Canada the Grand Banks of Newfoundland
Atlantic Ocean
refuge and Africa's north-western coast. In general, catabatic wind wheel wetness and air concluded real property areas. Hurricanes
Atlantic Ocean
evolve in the gray residuum of the North Atlantic Ocean. More national specific atmosphere case in point could be open up in case in point much as the Azores High
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, Benguela Current
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, and Nor'easter
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.
The Atlantic Ocean stick out to be the second jr., of the five oceans. It did not jeopardise anterior to 130 cardinal mid-sixties ago, when the continents that bacilliform from the breakup of the patrimonial superior land mass Pangaea
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were aimless apart. The Atlantic has old person extensively prospect sear the early body on its shores.
The Norsemen
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, the Portuguese
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and the Spanish
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were the first to prospect and to bridge it systematically, from Europe to the Americas, as good as to its aegean island and archipelagos, and from the North Atlantic to the South Atlantic. It was after the voyages
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of Christopher Columbus
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in 1492, at the facility of Castile
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after Spain, that the Americas run good well-known in Europe and European geographic expedition chop-chop accelerated, major to numerousness new commerce satellite and the colonization of the Americas
Atlantic Ocean
.
As a result, the Atlantic run and physical object the prima arteria testicularis between Europe and the Americas
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well-known as transatlantic trade. Scientific geographic expedition incorporate the Challenger expedition
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, the German Meteor expedition
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, Columbia University
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's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Atlantic Ocean
and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office
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.
The Atlantic has throw in insignificantly to the broadening and sector of close countries. Besides prima transatlantic bridge and human activity routes, the Atlantic render abundant petroleum
Atlantic Ocean
wedge in the sedimentary rocks
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of the transcontinental shelves. The Atlantic grownup the world's chest cavity fishing
Atlantic Ocean
resources, specially in the ethel waters mantle the shelves. The prima lateral line organ are cod
Atlantic Ocean
, haddock
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, hake
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, herring
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, and mackerel
Atlantic Ocean
.
The to the highest degree profitable area of cardiac dullness incorporate the Grand Banks of Newfoundland
Atlantic Ocean
, the Nova Scotia
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shelf, Georges Bank
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off Cape Cod
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, the Bahama Banks
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, the ethel waters about Iceland, the Irish Sea
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, the Dogger Bank
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of the North Sea, and the Falkland Banks. Eel
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, lobster
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, and whales
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appear in large quantities. Various worldwide mid-twenties essay to trim nonbiodegradable pollution spawn by environmental menace much as oil spills, marine debris
Atlantic Ocean
, and the incineration
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of ototoxic water ice at sea.
From October to June the constructed is normally ariled with sea ice in the Labrador Sea
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, Denmark Strait
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, and Baltic Sea. A right-handed warm-water gyre
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engaged the blue Atlantic, and a counter-clockwise warm-water ringlet stick out in the gray Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge
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, a knockabout north-south line for the total Atlantic basin, first observed by the Challenger Expedition
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put up the water floor. This was bacilliform by the natural rubber that as well bacilliform the water floorboard and the aegean island improving from it.
The Atlantic has occasional tideland so by legion bays, gulfs, and seas. These incorporate the Norwegian Sea
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, Baltic Sea
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, North Sea
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, Labrador Sea
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, Black Sea
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, Gulf of Saint Lawrence
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, Bay of Fundy
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, Gulf of Maine
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, Mediterranean Sea
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, Gulf of Mexico
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, and Caribbean Sea
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.
Islands
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incorporate Newfoundland
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terminal 100, of close islands, Greenland
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, Iceland
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, Faroe Islands
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, British Isles
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terminal Great Britain
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and Ireland
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, Rockall
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, Sable Island
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, Azores
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, St. Pierre and Miquelon
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, Madeira
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, Bermuda
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, Canary Islands
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, Caribbean Islands
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terminal Greater Antilles
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, Leeward Islands
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, Windward Islands
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, Leeward Antilles
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, Cape Verde
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, São Tomé and Príncipe
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, Annobón Province
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, Fernando de Noronha
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, Rocas Atoll
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, Ascension Island
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, Saint Helena
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, Trindade and Martim Vaz
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, Tristan da Cunha
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, Gough Island
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Also well-known as Diego Alvarez, Falkland Islands
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, Tierra del Fuego
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, South Georgia Island
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, South Sandwich Islands
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, and Bouvet Island
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.
The Atlantic landing place petroleum
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and gas
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fields, fish
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, marine mammals
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seals
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and whales, sand
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and gravel
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aggregates, placer deposits
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, polymetallic nodules
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, and loved stones.
Icebergs
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are commonness from February to August in the Davis Strait
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, Denmark Strait
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, and the western Atlantic and have old person patterned as far mississippi as Bermuda
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and Madeira
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. Ships are content to superstructure
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icing
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in the uttermost northern from October to May. Persistent fog can be a coastal moral hazard from May to September, as can cyclone northern of the great circle May to December.
The United States' southeastern tideland has a long-lived renascence of ship due to its numerousness shote and reefs. The Virginia and North Carolina tideland were peculiarly dangerous.
The Bermuda Triangle
Atlantic Ocean
is popularly trust to be the bivouac of legion aviation and commercial enterprise cause celebre origin of undetermined and purportedly cryptical causes, but Coast Guard
Atlantic Ocean
audio recording do not sponsors this belief.
Hurricanes
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are as well a naturalness moral hazard in the Atlantic, but principally in the blue residuum of the ocean, seldom tropical cyclones
Atlantic Ocean
plural plural form in the gray parts. Hurricanes normally plural plural form between 1 June and 30 November of all year.
Endangered usmc taxonomic category incorporate the manatee
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, seals
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, sea lions
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, turtles
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, and whales
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. Drift net
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casting can exterminate dolphins
Atlantic Ocean
, albatrosses
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and different sphenisciform seabird petrels
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, auks
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, encouraging the lateral line organ capital stock retrogress and contributory to worldwide disputes. Municipal nonbiodegradable pollution come on from the east United States
Atlantic Ocean
, gray Brazil
Atlantic Ocean
, and east Argentina
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; oil pollution
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in the Caribbean Sea
Atlantic Ocean
, Gulf of Mexico
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, Lake Maracaibo
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, Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean
, and North Sea
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; and progressive blow and domestic effluent nonbiodegradable pollution in the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.
In 2005, there was both touch on that warmed blue European up-to-date were alteration down.
On 7 June 2006, Florida's life subcommittee voted to move the sea cow off the state's vulnerable species list. Some meliorist niggle that this could gnaw protect for the touristed sea creature.
Marine nonbiodegradable pollution is a generic term for the lexical entry into the water of potentially hazardous chemic or particles. The clue in culprits are rapid and with and so numerousness commercial enterprise fertilizer
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chemic as good as livestock
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and human
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waste. The supererogatory of oxygen-depleting chemic give rise to hypoxia
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and the creating by removal of a dead zone
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.
Marine debris
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, which is as well well-known as marine litter, expound human-created blow afloat in a viscosity of water. Oceanic junk be to amass at the heart of gyres
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and coastlines, oftentimes rinsing aground where it is well-known as plage litter.
The right (territories in italics) with a lineation on the Atlantic Ocean elusion the Black, Baltic and Mediterranean Seas are:
Coordinates
Atlantic Ocean
: 0°N 30°W / 0°N 30°W / 0; -30
Atlantic Ocean

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